Kidney stones are hard deposits that can be seen anywhere in the urinary tract.
As long as a kidney stone does not move and is fixed, it does not have any symptoms. If the stone moves or enlarges, some or all of the following will be seen:
- Severe and intermittent pain in the side and back, below the level of the ribs, which may radiate to the side of the groin.
- Pink, red, or brown urine
- Smelly or dark urine
- nausea and vomiting
- Frequent urination
- Fever and chills if there is an infection
- Decreased urine volume
The kidney stones are mostly made of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a natural substance that is present in some foods and is produced in the liver. Some vegetables, fruits, nuts, and chocolate contain high amounts of oxalates. Some believe that the cause of kidney stone formation is excessive deposit of oxalate.
PCNL is a minimal invasion method in urinary tract stones’ treatment with a size of more than 2 cm by the highest and fastest rate of stones removal. This method is often used when the stone is large or resistant to ESWL.
Diagnosis of kidney stones
In case of symptoms of kidney stones, you should see a doctor specializing in urology
The doctor may request a blood test (to measure the level of calcium and uric acid), urine test, ultrasound, radiography (plain or specialized), or CT scan.
Treatment of kidney stones
There are various treatment methods for kidney stones. The treating doctor chooses the appropriate method based on the size of the kidney stone.
Small kidney stones do not require aggressive treatment such as stone breakers and are usually passed by the prescription that the doctor suggests.
Some kidney stones are large and cannot be removed through the methods mentioned above or are associated with bleeding or urinary tract infection; These stones may need the following treatments:
- Extracorporeal lithotripsy
- Use of endoscopy of urethra and bladder
- PCNL operation
- Open kidney surgery to remove very large stones